This is a work-in-progress. It's a compilation of acronyms and
definitions that I found that I had to look-up, while studying for Vista
certifications (Maybe you should read it, too)
ACM - Application Compatibility Manager. The user interface that is
used to view reports, based on the information from the ACT database. It
functions to Collect, Organize, and Analyze the ACT data. 1) The Collect
task configures data collection packages (used to Evaluate
compatibility, set monitoring times, and choose data output path). Data
packages can be deployed with CDs of other removable media; using Active
Directory; or using SMS 2003. 2) The Organize task lets you organize
collected data, such as inventory of computers, applications, and web
sites; prioritize data; and create and assign categories to data for
reporting. 3) The Analysis task allows you to analyze collected data,
compare with the online databases at Microsoft, create reports, and
filter data for further reporting and analysis.
ACPI - Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
ACT - Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT 5.0). A suite of tools that
gathers application inventory for testing and mitigating application
compatibility issues for Vista and Windows 2008. This includes specific
issues such as UAC and WRP incompatibilities. This is done by deploying
"application evaluators." ACT also has an on-line database of updated
compatibility information for review. Also assists in addressing
application incompatibility issues.
ACT-DC - Application Compatibility Toolkit Data Collector. Enables
client computers to interpret ACT data collection package configuration
settings; deploy ACT compatibility evaluators; gather collected ACT
compatibility data; and send collecte data to the ACT database. All of
this is done from a single user interface on the Application
Compatibility Manager station.
AD DS - Active Directory Directory Services.
Advanced Startup Options Menu - Formerly known as "F8" boot, in
AERO - Vista's "Glass" display feature. To run AERO, the computer's
Graphics card must support: 1) DirectX 9.0 or later; 2) A Windows
Display Driver Model (WDDM) driver; 3) Pixel Shader 3.0 in hardware; 4)
32-bit Color and; 5) 64 MB of Memory. The minimum configuration above
will support 1280 x 1024.
AIK - (Also WAIK) Windows Automated Installation Kit for configuring
unattended setup answer files (unattend.xml) and capturing cloning
images. It is a collection of Documents and tools to assist in
deployment of Windows Vista. AIK provides detailed information on
deployment, including: 1) Preinstallation Planning; 2) Preinstallation
Preparation; and 3) Preinstallation Customization. It also includes
tools to support: 1) Image Deployment and 2) Image Maintenance. ImageX,
WinPE, and WDS are components of AIK. The AIK can be downloaded from the
Microsoft download site.
Answer File - the XML file that provides the answers instead of the
Typical installation GUI popups. The Answer file for Vista is commonly
called autounattend.xml. This file can be created or modified by Windows
SIM, from the WAIK.
Application Compatibility Cookbook - A document developed and posted on
the Microsoft MSDN and Technet Sites to enable developers and
integrators to report and avoid known application issues with Vista and
Application Compatibility Toolkit - see ACT
Application Shim - a DLL that adds one or more Windows API hooks to
incompatible applications, to resolve some application compatibility
issues with Vista.
Applications and Services Logs - a new category of event logs in Vista.
In Vista, only legacy applications still write to the application event
log. The applications and Services is a folder level view of numerous
additional logs that are specific to different apdplications and
services. There are 4 types of Applications and Services logs: 1) Admin:
events that indicate a problem and a well-defined solution; 2)
Operational: events used for troubleshooting and resolving problems. May
not have specific solutions; 3) Analytic: events about program operation
and problems that can be handled by user intervention (this log can have
a high number of events); 4) Debug: used by developers. Note: Analytic
and Debug logs are hidden in the default view. To enable, click the View
menu and select "show Analytic and Debug Logs."
Atomic Transaction - See "Transactional NTFS"
autounattend.xml - See Answer file.
Basic Environment - aka Basic Infrastructure Environment. An
organization that meets less than half of the BDD infrastructure
optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: Manual Processes, Minimal
Central Control, non-existent or unenforced IT Policies, minimal or
non-existent infrastructure documentation, and lack of tools and
resources to manage an environment.
BCD - Boot Configuration Data. Vista stores configuration data in the
BCD - Bootmgr reads the BCD. Replaces Boot.ini in pre-vista. The BCD is
stored in a registry hive. Vista provides a utility, BCDEdit to edit,
export, and import BCD contents.
BCDEdit - a Vista Command-line utility to edit, export, and import most
Boot configuration Data (BCD) contents. BCDEdit can ONLY be run as
administrator. Use BCDEdit /? in a command windows to display options.
The ONLY way to access all BCD contents is via WMI. BCDEdit is also a
utility component of WinPE. You can also use BCDEdit to add WinPE to a
Vista Start menu.
BDD - Business Desktop Deployment. More correctly, "Microsoft Solution
Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment" (2007). Consists of a
collection of guidance materials and tools called "Feature Teams," based
upon Lite Touch and Zero Touch. The BDD Deployment Workbench is used to
configure and manage deployments using Windows Deployment Services and
SMS. Feature Teams included with BDD are: 1) Application Compatibility
Feature Team, 2) Infrastructure remediation feature team, 3) Computer
imaging system feature team, 4) Core and supplemental application
Packing feature team, 5) User state migration feature team, 6) Security
feature team, 7) Deployment feature team, 8) Operations feature team,
and 9) Office upgrade feature team. BDD has 6 pre-requirements for the
server and 3 requirements for the client. Server Requirements are: 1)
Windows Installer 3.1; 2) Microsoft Core XML (MSXML); 3) .NET Framework
2.0; 4) MMC 3.0; 5) Windows Scripting Host (WSH) 5.6; and 6) Windows AIK
(or WAIK) WAIK requires either Server 2003 sP1 or XP SP2. Clients must
also have: 1) IE 5 or later; 2) WSH 5.6; and 3) MSXML 6. By default, BDD
will create the Distribution Share, when it is installed, at
x:\Distribution (x: will be the disk volume with the most available
space). The current versions of BDD will always require an immediate
update, after installation. The Deployment Workbench can be used to
download and install the updates.
BDD Deployment Workbench - The primary tool used to create and manage
components for Vista desktop deployment. Includes 1) Distribution Share
(create and manage source files for operating systems, applications,
packages, and drivers, used in desktop deployment); 2) Builds versions
of the baseline, for specific deployments; 3) Deploy - includes
single-server deployment, a deployment share, or a DVD ISO image;
containing all of the files needed to cusomize an SMS OS deployment.
BDE - Bitlocker drive encryption (see bitlocker)
BitLocker - an encryption feature that is available in Vista Ultimate
and Vista Enterprise ONLY. It can be used to encrypt a "keylocker" or an
entire disk drive. Bitlocker can ONLY encrypt ONE volume. BitLocker does
NOT encrypt the "System" volume, which contains a minimum of 1.5GB, just
enough operating system to boot and enable BitLocker. A 2nd volume or
physical drive is required for the BitLocker Disk. BitLocker can be
configured to ask for a PIN number during boot. Without the PIN, an
unauthorized user can gain access to the encrypted volume, by guessing
the login password, or social engineering. BitLocker uses TPM for
storing the encryption keys. If you don't have a TPM chip, Bitlocker can
use a USB drive to store the encryption key. If you forget your PIN or
USB, recovery requires entering a 48-digit numeric password, using the
F-keys. This password is generated when bitlocker is implemented. In a
domain, the bitlocker recovery passwords can be stored in AD, and a
Bitlocker Recover Password viewer downloaded from Microsoft to view the
BITS - Background Intelligent Transfer Service.
Boot Volume - Microsoft NT, in all of it's versions, has used the
terminology backwards. The system starts, or "boots" from the "SYSTEM
VOLUME" and runs from the "Boot Volume." These can be the same, unless
Bitlocker is being used, then these must be separate volumes (not
necessarily separate disk drives). In a BitLocker configuration, the
System Volume is small (1.5GB) and the Boot Volume is the remainder of
the disk. The boot volume is the encryped volume.
Boot.wim - WIM images can be made bootable, as is the case with Windows
Vista's setup DVD. In this case, BOOT.WIM contains a bootable version of
Windows PE from which the installation is performed. Other setup files
are contained in the file INSTALL.WIM
Bootmgr - Controls the Vista boot process and presents the boot menu if
multi-booting. Replaces NTLDR in pre-vista.
Bootsect - Part of the Vista WinPE. Updates hard disk boot code to
switch between NTLDR (pre-vista) and Bootmgr (Vista). Can also be used
to fix damaged or hacked boot sectors. Replaces Pre-vista FixNTFS tool.
bpp - Bits per pixel. Also known as "Pixel Depth" Windows Vista Glass
requires 32 bits per Pixel depth.
CMW - Custom Maintenance Wizard File. Pre-Office 2007 installer options.
This is not used in Office 2007
CredMan - Vista Credentials Manager Service. Stores credentials on the
computer in one central location. After CredMan is updated with a new
password, all scheduled tasks will use the new password.
Collaboration Technologies - Vista includes 2 collaboration
technologies, People Near Me ( PNM ) and Peer Name Resolution Protocol (
Catalog File - (.clg) a file that lists the settings and packages
contained in a windows .Wim image. There must be a different catalog
file for each version of Windows (Vists) within the image.
Config.xml - in the Office 2007, Config.xml replaced all of the
functions of the pre-Office 2007 Setup.ini. It is used to customize the
Office 2007 system setup; which product(s) to install, path to the
installation point, languages, chaining, location of customization
files, location of software updates, pre-caching the local installation
source (LIS), customizing Group-policy software installations. The OCT
is the recommended tool for customizations, but some customizations can
only be made with the config.xml or making last minute customizations
that do not justify use of the OCT (hence, if Config.xml differs from
OCT settings, config.xml wins. Config.xml is normally located in the
same folder as the Setup.exe on the LIS. The Config.xml can be relocated
by using the /config for setup.
ConfigMgr - See Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager
Cross-Log Query - Pre-Vista event logs had no way to correlate data
across multiple log files (except look for it). Cross-Log Queries in
Vista can be created to allow a cross-log view of events.
Data Collector Sets - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic
Console. Can contain performance counters, event trace data, and system
configuration information (Registry Key Entries)
Devcon - a Microsoft downloadable command-line utility that acts as an
alternative to Device Manager. Using DevCon, you can enable, disable,
restart, update, remove, and query individual devices or groups of
devices. DevCon also provides information that is relevant to the driver
developer and is not available in Device Manager.
DCS - Data Collection Sets. See "Performance Diagnostic Console"
DDPS - Desktop Deployment Planning Service. A service provided by
Microsoft reseller partners. 1-10 days of advice, depending upon the
amount of Software Assurance that is purchased along with the product.
DFSR - See Distributed File System Replication
DHCP NAP EC - DHCP Enforcement comprises a DHCP NAP ES component and a
DHCP NAP EC component.
Digitizer - The pen device, used for input on tablet PCs. (Not just a
Discover Image - a bootable .ISO which is burned onto a CD, then used to
boot into WDS, if the new client's BIOS does not support PXE. (Most
modern BiOSs do support PXE). The boot image will boot, then launch the
Windows Deployment Services Discovery Wizard. The discovery wizard then
acts as PXE to connect to WDS.
DiskPart - Used to do disk partition maintenance, like creating and
deleting partitions. (a utility component of WinPE)
Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) - a component of Windows
Drvload - Uised to "inject" or add drivers to a WinPE image or add a
driver to a running WinPE. (a utility component of WinPE)
DWDB - Deployment Workbench Data Base. A component of System Center
Configuration Manager. System Center Configuration Manager uses the DWDB
and the CustomSettings.ini to determine the list of packages that will
Dynamic Environment - aka Dynamic Infrastructure Environment. An
organization that meets ALL of the BDD infrastructure optimization Best
Practices. Characterized by: fully automated management, dynamic
resource usage, Integration and Service Level Agreements with OEM
partners (pre-built custome images are delivered ready-to-use).
EAPHost NAP EC - 802.1x enforcement comprises an NPS Server and an
EAPHost NAP EC component
EC - Enforcement Client. Each EC is specific to the type of NAP (e.g.
DHCP requires a DHCP NAP EC)
ELF - Enterprise Learning Framework. An online tool to help users
determine the most relevant Learning topics. The ELF provides a number
of deployment benefits, including: Prepare users for deployment and show
features available in the new software; minimize disruption with a
short-list of "must-know" topics; provide tips, tricks, and productivity
topics to help users get the most from Vista and Office 2007.
ES - Generic abbreviation for Enforcement Server
Forwarded Events Log - the only new log in the classical view of Vista
Event Viewer. It contains events that are forwarded from other
computers, by using a subscription.
FVEK - Full Volume Encryption Key. Bitlocker uses a FVEK to encrypt the
full volume. The FVEK is then, itself, encrypted using a Volume Master
Key (VMK). Encryption uses AES 128 or 256 depending upon the group
policy key length
GDI - Graphic Device Interface. The print rendering engine used in XP.
Vista implements GDI to support legacy printing, but uses the new
Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) XML-bases print engine as its
GINA - Graphical Identification and Authentication. The legacy screen
that has been used for login and password in pre-vista Windows (except
XP, in the home user interface).
GPMC - Group Policy Management Console. Was available as an optional
download in pre-vista, but is built-in to Vista. GPMC provides the
capability to edit, manage GPO links, Enable/disable GPOs, etc for both
local computer group policy and Domain-based group policy.
GPO - Group Policy Object. An abstraction which contains applicable
GUIDs and settings for each group policy. Vista allows multiple GPOs to
exist on one machine - one for each user, if desired. There is a new
Group Policy SERVICE on Vista to run GPOs.
GUID - Globally Unique ID. A hierarchical structured string, which
UNIQUELY identifies one object in Windows 2000, XP, 2003, and Vista.
Each new release added uses for and more GUIDs.
HAL - Hardware Abstraction Layer. A vendor-specific layer in the OS,
that interfaces the hardware with the OS, allowing Windows to be unaware
of the technical details of the hardware. Windows comes with several
"White-box" HALs, but many vendors have vendor-proprietary hardware and
require vendor-specific HALs.
Hybrid Sleep - The default shutdown mode for Vista. This mode combines
S3 (Standby - formerly sleep mode) and S4 (Hibernate). When the "off"
button is pushed, the Vista machine first writes the RAM to disk, then
goes into "doze" or temporary sleep mode. If power is interrupted while
the machine is dozing (set by the "doze time-out" in the power plan),
Vista will do a shutdown power to RAM and change the state to
"Hibernate" (Zero time, because RAM has already been written to the
disk. If the doze is interrupted, Vista starts rapidly, from doze
(standby or sleep) (reported to resume in less than 10 seconds). If the
battery goes into
HRA - Health Registration Authority. An HRA is configured as a RADIUS
client to use RADIUS as the authentication, authorization, and
accounting protocol to a RADIUS server. (e.g. HRA is synonymous with
what was formerly known as a "Radius Client")
IECE - Internet Explorer Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility
evaluator component of ACT. Identifies web site and web application
problems expected in the deployment of Vista.
ImageX - A command-line tool used to create desktop images, update and
edit an offline image - without the need to create a new image, take an
image of an existing PC for distribution or for backup, Use scripting to
create and edit images, and minimize then number of images - by
providing HAL Independence. ImageX is included with Microsoft Solution
Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment (BDD). With ImageX, you can:
View the contents of an image file; capture desktop images; mount images
for offline editing; store multiple images in one .wim file; compress
image files; run scripts to create images. ImageX can also be used to
DEPLOY images from Wim files.
Infrastructure Optimization Model. A Microsoft 4-level model that
describes the level of automation of an existing enterprise system and
maps that to a method of migration. It defines 4 levels of automation:
Basic - No standards, hit-or-miss patching, etc - requires manual
deployment; Standardized - An organization with a defined set of
standard base images, multiple OSs. and automated patch management -
recommended Lite Toucn deployment; Rationalized - base images defined at
the corporate level and managed manually, uses automated software
distribution - Zero Touch upgrades recommended; and Dynamic: Standard
images and patches are provided by an OEM.
Integrity Level - The purpose of the Vista integrity mechanism is to
restrict access permissions of applications that are running under the
same user account, but are less trustworthy (unknown, or potentially
malicious code). It extends the security architecture by assigning an
integrity level to application processes and to securable objects. The
primary security problem that the integrity level addresses is resisting
unauthorized tampering with user data and system state. The integrity
levels are not intended to be an application "sandbox," but it helps.
For example, IE7 in Vista runs at a low integrity level, hence IE7'
potential for damage because it can only write to low integrity level
locations (Temporary Internet Files, History folder, and cookies
Inventory Collector - an agent compatibility evaluator component of ACT.
Examines each computer; identifies the installed applications, devices
and system information.
IPSec NAP EC - (also see IPSec, NAP, and EC). A Health Certificate
Server and an IPSec NAP EC are required. A health certificate server is
the combination of an HRA and a certification authority (CA).
KMDF - Kernel Mode Driver Framework. A pre-Vista method of developing
and installing drivers, which ran with elevated privileges in the
Windows Kernel. See UMDF.
KMS - Key Management Service. Part of Volume Activation 2.0 Enables
organizations with volume licenses to perform local activations for
computers IN A MANAGED ENVIRONMENT without connecting to Microsoft for
each computer. For activities running more than 25 computers. The new
computers activate with a local Server 2003 (KMS for 2003 must be
downloaded from Microsoft), 2008, or Vista machine running KMS. The KMS
"server" must be activated with Microsoft, one time, over the internet
or via phone. A KMs server can run other applications, and one server
can service thousands of "clients." Two KMS servers are recommended for
fault tolerance. A VBScript is provided to activate the KMS Server (cscriptc:\windows\system32\slmgr.vbs
-ipk <VLK key>). Most management and queries MUST be done with the slmgr
script in 2003 - CAN be done from the command line in Vista, but Vista
KMS "servers" also have a GUI. Retail licenses cannot use KMS. When
installed, KMS service publishes it's location in DNS in a SRV record.
Both Domain members and stand-alone workstations can locate the KMS, by
querying DNS for the SRV record. After a KMS is activated, clients
self-activate with the KMS server, using DNS or a registry entry. After
initializing the KMS server, there is a short grace period for
Vista-based servers (2003 servers have NO grace period). 1) Client
computers that are not activated attempt to activate every 2 hours; 2)
Client computers MUST renew their activation with the KMS every 180
days; 3) KMS client computers renew activation every 7 days, by default;
4) KMS client computers connect with the KMS server via RPC over TCP on
port 1688; 5) only Vista Business and Vista Vista Enterprise with VLK's
can be KMS clients; 6) A KMS server must have 25 connected clients,
before it will activate ANY clients (Virtualized Vistas don't count in
the 25 requirement). slmgr.vbs returns a cryptic error code. To decode,
run slui.exe 0x2a 0x<error code>. slmgr.vbs -dli can be used to query
status and "current license count" (e.g have you used-up all of your
Link Layer Topology Discovery Responder - See LLTD. The responder
responds to network map requests from other LLTD-enabled systems. LLTD
Responder can be back-fitted to Windows XP.
LIS - Local Installation Source. In Office 2007, all installations are
made from a local installation source, which is located in a hidden
directory at \msocache\all users\<guid>. This is always located at the
root of the disk drive or partition that the office 2007 installation is
Lite Touch installation - see BDD
LKG - Last known Good startup state. In Vista, the LKG is still an F8
option, but the Startup repair tool will automatically attempt to roll
back to the LKG, if it cannot repair the startup problem.
LLTD - Link Layer Topology Discovery. Replaces NETBIOS browsing in
Windows Vista to show resources and discover shared resources. LLTD is
installed in Vista, by default, but it must be enabled before it can be
used. Out-of-the-box, Vista cannot be discovered on the network - and it
will not discover neighbors.
LLTD Responder - see Link Layer Topology Discovery Responder.
LoadState - the 2nd phase of the USMT migration process. After the new
or upgraded machines are in place, Vista, and all of its applications
installed, ScanState is used to remove the stored ScanState files and
settings, and copy them to the target system.
LocalService Account - see "LocalSystem"
LocalSystem Account - The pseudo-user account that was used for most
system functions in versions prior to VISTA. Vista has implemented two
new, less-priviledged pseudo-user accounts to run most services,
LocalService and NetworkService.
LSA - Local Security Authority.LSA stands for Local Security Authority,
which is an important required component of Windows that deals with
login authentication and security policies, The Local Security Authority
or LSA is a key component of the logon process in WinXP (as well as NT &
Win2000) The LSA is responsible for validating users for both local and
remote logons. The LSA also maintains the local security policy. During
the local (interactive) logon to a machine, a person enters their name
and password to the logon dialog. This information is passed to the LSA,
which then calls the appropriate authentication package. The password is
sent in a nonreversible secret key format using a one-way hash function.
The LSA then queries the SAM database for the user's account
information. If the key provided matches the one in the SAM, the SAM
returns the users SID and the SIDs of any groups the user belongs to.
The LSA then uses these SIDs to generate the security access token.
LTI - Lite Touch Installation. Uses Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT)
to minimize the effort of installing Vista - also see ZTI, BDD, and MDT.
Used when there is no System Center Configuration Manager Server or SMS.
Requires interation from an administrator or a delegated user.
Requirements to deploy an LTI infrastructure requires several servers -
or a single server and several roles, including: 1) A BUILD SERVER -
Source for customized .WIMs, and OOB drivers, service packs, and
language packs; 2) DATA SERVER - To store the USMT user data; 3)
APPLICATION INSTALLATION SERVER - storage for application installation
bits; 4) WINDOWS DEPLOYMENT SERVICES (WDS) SERVER - the PXE environment
with both boot and installation images (WDS can be replaced by WinPE
MAK - Multiple Activation Key. Uses a product key that can activate a
specific number of computers. The total number of activations at any
given time are referred to as the "activation pool." MAKs are activation
keys, they are not used to install Vista, but after-installation
activations. Microsoft maintains "activation servers" which provide
feedback on the remaining licenses in a pre-purchased "activation pool."
A MAK can be installed on a computer that was set up for KMS activation,
but has not connected to activate and is at risk of the grace period
expiring. (Grace period CANNOT be extended.) A MAK can also be embedded
in an image for download using WDS (formerly RIS).
MAK Independent Activation - See MAK. Requires that each machine connect
to the internet and activate against Microsoft's activation servers.
MAK Proxy Activation - See MAK. Enables a central proxy machine to
request activation for multiple machines, with only one connection to
MDT - Microsoft Deployment Toolkit. MDT 2008 is the next version of
Business Desktop Deployment (BDD) 2007. Adds new software and a single
path to create images and automate deployment of desktops AND SERVERS.
Tools and processes for desktop and server deployment. See LTI and ZTI.
Microsoft Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment - See BDD
Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager - (SCCM) The Server 2007
upgrade for RIS server and SMS 2003.
Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager Task Sequencer - (See SCCM)
A Component of SCCM and the Deployment Workbench. (Deployment Workbench
creates the Tasks and Groups). The Task Sequencer is responsible for
ordering the sequence of tasks in a deployment. It uses Groups, then
subgroups and tasks just like folders and files. The Configuration
Manager Console can also create task sequencing.
MSI - The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer) is
an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on
modern Microsoft Windows systems. The installation information, and
often the files themselves, are packaged in installation packages,
loosely these are relational databases structured as OLE Structured
Storage Files and commonly known as "MSI files", from their default file
MSP - Setup Customization File. Created by Office 2007 OCT to customize
installation options - replaced the pre-Office 2007 .mst file.
MST - Microsoft Transform file. Created by the pre-Office 2007 MS Office
Custom Installation Wizard, runs in tandem with an .MSI, to change the
NAP - Network Access Protection. The policy enforcement platform built
into Vista and Server 2008 (Formerly the "Quarantine" role). NAP allows
you to enforce compliance with client health policies or access
restricted resources to update virus signatures, etc, until it can
become compliant. NAP enforcement options in VISTA are: IPSec, 802.1x,
VPN and DHCP.
NAS - Network Attached Storage. Typically a big disk (or a
"refrigerator-size" rack of disks) usually SCSI, which are carved-up and
shared on the network. Usually has a tiny, one-function Operating
system, such as a cut-down version of Linux.
NetworkService Account - see "LocalSystem"
Netsh advfirewall - a netshell context which is specific to VISTA and
Svr 2008 to manage that version of advanced firewall.
NPS - Network Policy Server (formerly the role of IAS Server)
OCT - Office Customization Tool. A new component of the install process
for Office 2007. Office 2007 config.xml can also be used to customize at
run-time. The OCT can also be used to create and save an .MSP custom
config. The MSP replaces the former .MST Transform file. OCT can set:
the Office install path, remove previous versions, features, default
applications, custom files, registry entries, shortcuts, and create a
customized MS Outlook 2007 User profile. The default location for the .msp
is in the Updates folder. It can be relocated by adding the /adminfile
setting to the setup command line. An MSP can be used to customize an
installation after installation. The OCT tool is started by running "setup.exe
OFC - Office File Converter. Part of the Office 2007 OMPM.
OOBE - Out-of-box-experience. The default install of Vista, as if just
rolled off a retail/corporate Vista CD.
Oobe.xml - Out of box experience. One of two unattended answer file in
Vista Imaging and deployment. The Oobe.xml customizes the welcome
screen, which starts after setup and only on the first startup.
OMPM - Office Migration Planning Module. Operates in conjunction with
the Office File Converter to do bulk conversions to XML. Before running
teh OMPM File Scanner you must first edit the OFFScan.ini file and then
run OFFScan.exe from the computer that is to be scanned.
OPK - OEM Pre-installation Kit. The Windows install package for
pre-installing Windows, used by Vendors (OEMs)
OPS - Office Profile Setting file. Pre-Office 2007 file to create custom
profiles at install time. This file is replaced with Active Directory
policies in Office 2007.
ORK - Office Resource Kit
Oscdimg - creates customized ISO images of WinPE. You can boot a
computer from this ISO. (a utility component of WinPE)
OSD - Operating System Deployment.
OSD Capture CD - See "OSD and SMS OSD" A version of WinPE, Created
within the SMS Administrator Console (Image Packages Node). Creates an
OSD Feature Pack - an add-on to SMS, used to create images within SMS,
allowing SMS to deploy and manage images using Zero Touch. The OSD
feature pack for SMS can be downloaded from Microsoft - it is also
included in Microsoft System Center Configuration Manger. OSD Provides
SMS with the capability for: 1) Image Capture Management for the .WIM
image format; 2) Operating System Package Management - customizes the
settings for deployments; 3) User State Migration (must also download
the USMT 3.0 for Vista); 4) Image Deployment - Push out via SMS 2003;
and 5) Reporting.
PA - Protected Administrator Account. One of the two user accounts that
Vista applications run under ( See SU and UACCE ).
PDL - Page Description Language. The actual language which a computer
sends to a printer. Numerous PDLs exist, from the legacy HPPDL,
PostScript, etc. Vista uses the XPS PDL by default, if the print device
PE - See Windows PE
PEimg - Used to modify a WinPE image. (a utility component of WinPE)
Per Service SID - Per Service Security Identifier. A component of
Windows Service Hardening, implemented in VISTA. Beginning with VISTA, a
standard SID is assigned to every service. This SID can be used to
explicitly or automatically (by installer) grant permissions to the
specific system resources that that service is authorized to access. In
addition to standard resources, Service SIDS are also linked DIRECTLY
with the Vista advanced firewal policy.
Performance Diagnostic Console - Renamed after Beta, now known as
Reliability and Performance monitor. Vista combined the pre-vista
functions of Task Manager, Performance Logs and Alerts, Server
Performance Advisor, and System Monitor into the Performance Diagnostic
Console. For useful information, the Reliability and Performance Monitor
must be run as an administrator. (The traditional Task Manager, with all
of it's characteristic capabilities is still installed.) The components
consist of: 1) Resource Overview - a super-set of the orignial task
manager: Reliability 2) monitor - provides a systems stability chart
which presents one year of system stability data, including errors,
warnings, software installations, and uninstallations, hardware
failures, windows failures, and other data - all presented on a
time-line for easy correlation; 3) System Stability Report, more details
than the system stability chart; 4) Reliability Monitor - tracks key
events such as memory problems, Hard disk, Drivers, Applications, and OS
failures - also presented on a time line; 5) The time-honored System
Monitor (originally Performance Monitor) with real-time displays of
countless system counters and data; and 6) data collector Sets (DCS)
which can be a saved monitoring collection, triggered by a schedule,
triggered by an event or failure (similar to the traditional Logs and
Performance Monitor - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic
Phishing Filter - a new feature of IE7. It performs 3 tasks to help
protect from Phishing sites. (1) Compares the web site address with a
list of known GOOD sites; (2) Analyzes visited sites for characteristics
of a Phishing site; and (3) Checks a list of known BAD sites. Phishing
filters attempt to reduce the likelyhood that a phishing attack from a
malicious website (or a legitimate website that has been hacked) will be
PNM - People Near Me. See Collaboration Technologies. PNM "discovers"
computers on the same subnet as the user. People Near Me appears as an
icon in the Networking category of Control Panel
PnP-X - Plug-and-play-extensions. A network or web services protocol,
which is used by LLTD and LLTD Responder to discover and establish
PNPUtil - Plug-and-play utility command-line tool for managing vista
driver store. Add or delete some or all drivers in a driver packge.
PNRP - Peer Name Resolution Protocol. See Collaboration Technologies.
Unlike PNM, PNRP can be used to communicate in a massively scalable
peer-to-peer group, over an entire corporate network or even the
internet. PNRP uses IPV6, but can use IPV4, using a Toredo tunneling
protocol. Toredo allows IPV6 packets to be tunneled inside of IPV4
Power Plan - a profile for Vista Power Management. There are 3 default
power plans; Power Saver (CPU max is limited to 50%), Balanced, and
Power States - Registry settings for Vista Power Management. (Requires
ACPI-capable Bios - which all modern computers support). S0=Working
State (Also known as "G0 state"), S3=Standby (Formerly "Sleep." RAM is
still using power), S4=Hibernate, S5=Soft Off (Some power is being used
by the MOBO), G3=Mechanically off (on-off switch)
PrintBRM.exe - The command-line backup | Restore | Management tool,
included with Vista and W08. This command is NOT on the default path.
You must CD %systemroot%\system32\spool\tools to run it.
Problem Reports and Solutions - An improved version of pre-Vista Dr
Watson. Used to monitor application problems. It works in conjunction
with Windows Error reporting. After the Windows Memory Diagnostics tool
or the Windows Network diagnostics tools have run, you can use the
Problem reports and solutions tool to see the problem report details and
check with Microsoft for known fixes.
PXE - Pre-Boot Execution Environment. An on-board boot capability which
is built-in to the MOBO or the NIC card of all modern computers. Allows
the bare-metal roll-out client to contact a RIS server and request an OS
download. PXE functionality is not integrated into the System Center
Configuratin Managers PXE provider.
Rationalized Environment - aka Rationalized Infrastructure Environment.
An organization that meets ALL of the BDD infrastructure optimization
Best Practices. Characterized by: Proactive security policies, lite-touch
or zero-touch deployments, and low-touch management.
Reboot Manager - (aka "Restart Manager) a new Vista feature that reduces
the number of restarts required for application and OS updates. Analyzes
an application and restarts only the necessary SERVICES. Saves the
current (application) state, updates the application, restores the
state. Updates happen silently, no user prompts, and no user data is
lost. Programs must be rewritten to work with reboot manager.
REgistry Virtualization - aka "virtualization" an application
compatibility technology that enables registry write operations to be
redirected to per-user locations (transparently - but can cause
application compatibility problems in some applications. This is unique
to non-UAC-compliant applications. In some events, there can be
virtualized values AND non-virtualized values for the same key. Read
operations, read and merge the results, unless the Virtual values
conflict with the non-virtualized values, in which case, the virtualized
values take precedence. Works ONLY for 32 bit applications.
Reliability and Performance Monitor - see Performance Diagnostic
Reliability Monitor - a component of Vista Performance Diagnostic
Refresh Scenario - A USMT scenario in which ScanState gathers and stores
the user data; the old machine is reformatted; the new OS and
applications are installed; LoadState is used to load the user settings
on the new computer
Replace Scenario - A USMT scenario in which ScanState gathers and stores
the user data; the old machine is replaced; the new OS and applications
are installed; LoadState is used to load the user settings on the new
Reports (in Performance Diagnostic Console) - Generated with one report
per data collector set. Use Data Manager to specify rules. Default
reports are: Lan Tracing, System Overview, and Wireless Tracing.
Resource Overview - a component of Performance Diagnostic Console
Restart Manger - see reboot manager.
RIS - Remote Installation Services. A bare-metal OS deployment tool for
use with pre-Vista. See WDS.
RMS - Rights Management Services - Windows Rights management embeds
usage policies in documents to control their use. RMS requires 3
components: 1) RMS server - a Window 2008 web server handles
certifications, licensing, enrollment of users and server, and
administration; 2) RMS Client - a group of processes that work with the
RMS server to prove licenses, etc. Windows Vista includes an RMS client
and; 3) RMS-enabled applications. Applications that are not RMS-enabled
are unable to open RMS-protected documents and media.
RSS - Really Simple Syndication. (Also Atom, and a dozen other names for
the same methods) A method which allows web content developers
(including bloggers and podcasting) to "publish" their work - and users
to "subscribe" to the published information, and any subsequent changes,
to be automatically downloaded. (called a "feed"). Office 2007 is
tightly integrated with RSS.
S4U - Service for Users. A set of Kerberos extensions that allows a task
to impersonate a user account and use those credentials without actually
logging in. This eliminates the need to store passwords on the local
ScanState - the first phase of a USMT migration. During ScanState the
information to be migrated is collected from the old system and stored
in the designated location on a Server, etc. ScanState creates the
USMT3.MIG file, which contains the data to be migrated. By default
ScanState does not encrypt data, but it can be set to encrypt, using a
run-command-argument with the Key string, or pointing to a text file
with the key string. Compression of the USMT3.MIG is ON, by default, but
it can be set to not compress. Scanstate can be scripted, using an XML
file (usually config.xml) ScanState can migrate all users on a computer
in one pass. See USMT
SCCM - see "Security Center Configuration Manager"
SIM - Systems Image Manager (or Windows System Image Manager or Windows
SIM). A Vista tool to create Unattended answer files (unattend.xml and
Oobe.xml); distribition shares; or modify the files inside a
configuration set. The SIM is a component of the WAIK, which is a
component of BDD 2007.
Single Instancing - The ability of Vista image files (WIM) to store
numerous image configurations, but share common files from a single
instance of the file - saving space in the image.
SLP - Microsoft Office 2007 Single Language pack (add-on). All
language-specific parts for any office application are contained in one
SLP. You can install one-or-many SLPs with an installtion. OCT is used
to customize the installation. Config.xml can also be used to specify
which languages to install (default matches the "locale" setting.
SMS - Systems Management Server an older version network management and
software installation tool from Microsoft that pre-dated the System
Center Configuration Server. SMS 2003 is still useful in Zero Touch
SMS OSD - Systems Management Server Operating System Deployment. An
Add-on feature-pack to SMS 2003, to enable SMS to do Zero Touch
deployment. Also See ZTI.
SRT - Startup Repair Tool. See "Startup Repair"
Standard User Analyzer Tool.
Standardized Environment - aka Standardized Infrastructure Environment.
An organization that meets more than half of the BDD infrastructure
optimization Best Practices. Characterized by: Reasonable
hardware/software inventoies, Standards and Policies, some automated
procedures, and improved security measures.
Startup Repair Tool - a Vista term for the equivalent of the pre-vista
"Command Console." Rules remain about the same - It can be run ONLY from
the install CD, unless it is installed on the hard disk (before the
crash). Unlike Command Console, Startup repair will auto-run, and
auto-reboot as many times as necessary, if it is installed and if it
detects a problem. Also, like command console, it will be an option in
the Windows Advanced Startup Options Menu (F8 Boot Menu), if it is
pre-installed. It automatically fixes many common problems, including
boot problems - and can also be used manually. The startup repair tool
can automatically repair incompatible drivers, missing or corrupt
configuration, and corrupt disk metadata. The startup repair tool
creates a log file to review after the system is restarted. If the
startup repair tool cannot automatically repair a startup problem, the
system is automatically rolled back to the LKG.
SU - Standard User Account. One of the two user accounts that Vista
applications run under ( See PA and UACCE ).
SUA - Subsystem for Unix-based Applications.
Symbolic Links - A Unix-like feature that allows one file to be
referenced by different names - or from different locations. Created
from a command-line with mklink
Sysprep - System Preparation Tool. The same as the pre-Vista Sysprep
tool. After preparing an image for cloning, Sysprep strips out ALL
box-specific information (SID, GUIDs, Computer Name, IP Addresses, User
Names, etc) Also Removes-resets any Windows Activation (UP TO 3 TIMES,
only). After Sysprep, an image is collected, which, when rolled-out asks
for these items (or uses an unattended answer file) to re-configure the
clone(s). Vista's Sysprep can also be configured to start the Windows
welcome screen on the next start.
System Center Configuration Manager - see Microsoft System Center
System Configuration - formerly "msconfig"
System Stability Index - an output of the Reliability Monitor
System STability report - an output of the Reliability Monitor
System Volume - Microsoft NT, in all of it's versions, has used the
terminology backwards. The system starts, or "boots" from the "SYSTEM
VOLUME" and runs from the "Boot Volume." These can be the same, unless
Bitlocker is being used, then these must be separate volumes (not
necessarily separate disk drives). In a BitLocker configuration, the
System Volume is small (1.5GB) and the Boot Volume is the remainder of
the disk. The boot volume is the encryped volume.
Tags - Tags are keywords that you can add to a file in Vista, that are
searchable. Vista Search stores tags for all file types. Technically,
tags are classified as "metadata" or data about data, or properties.
After tags are added to a file (ex. You add tags to vacation photos),
you can search for files, based on those tags.
TCG - Trusted Computing Group Standards. A BIOS feature that supports
the TPM. If the TPM is used for storing Bitlocker Keys, it must be at
least version 1.2.
Toredo tunneling protocol - Toredo allows IPV6 packets to be tunneled
inside of IPV4 packets.
TPM - Trusted Platform Module. A TPM is a chip on the motherboard which
stores keys, passwords, and digital certificates. BitLocker uses TPM for
storing the encryption keys. If you dont have a TPM chip, Bitlocker can
use a USB drive to store the encryption key. If the TPM is used for
BitLocker, it must be at least Version 1.2. A TPM is not required for
Bitlocker, but, if there is no TPM, it MUST use a USB device. The BIOS
must support access for USB storage devices.
Transactional NTFS (TxF) - a new feature of Vista NTFS, which ensures
that each transaction completes correctly - or the entire transaction is
rolled-back to a stable state. This can be a file, a folder, or even
multiple files across multiple computers. This is seen, when an install
hiccups, and Vista asks if it should be rolled-back. Also, less obvious,
but roll-back is automatic in some instances, where an operation fails.
This is NOT an administrator function - it is a programmer call to tell
the system where a transaction begins and where it is finalized. TxR
works the same way for registry transactions.
TrustedInstaller.exe - see WRP.
TxF see Transactional NTFS.
TxR Transactional Registry - see Transactional NTFS.
UAC - User Account Control. A protective mechanism which is built-in to
VISTA, designed to prevent unauthorized users and malware from
installing or running unauthorized applications or roles. It also allows
administrators to run with standard user permissions, yet perform all
necessary administrative functions, without having to logoff or perform
that action using "RunAs." UAC is quite controversial, because of it's
pervasive behaviour. Numerous sites contain instructions to remove,
disable, or modify UAC's behavior. The standard answer is to remove or
turn it off - this is NOT recommended, because UAC performs many useful
functions in protecting the system. A downloadable tool, TWEAKUAC.exe is
available on the web, it will put the UAC in "silent" mode, while still
having it running.
UACCE - User Account Control Compatibility Evaluator. An agent
compatibility evaluator component of ACT. Identifies potential problems
about legacy applications running under protected Administrator ( PA )
or Standard User ( SU ) accounts on Vista.
UCE - Update Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility evaluator
component of ACT. Identifies potential conflict impacts and used to
prioritize testing and reduce uncertainty in deploying Vista updates.
UEFI - United Extensible Firmware Interface. A new standard for firmware
that is architecture independent and makes the boot process compatible
between different hardware architectures. UEFI also eliminates the
16-bit real mode interface with the BIOS.
UFD - USB Flash Drive (common Thumb drive).
UMDF - User Mode Driver Framework. A less-trusted driver model in Vista.
It is typically used for USB and other external devices (including
printers). KMDF is used for internal resources - and have stricter
signing requirements. (both use apparently identical .inf files).
Printers can often be problematic in migrations, because they do NOT
have UMDF drivers.
Unattend.xml - Generic name for the Vista unattended answer file.
Unattend.xml replaces unattend.txt and Winbom.ini. Unattended install
also uses Oobe.xml as another answer file.
User State Migration Tool - see USMT
USMT - User State Migration Tool. For migrating user settings via an
intermediate server. Helps ensure that user files and settings are
migrated during large deployments of XP and Vista. Migrates some OS
components, such as IE settings, Outlook Express mail, wallpaper and
icons, accessibility settings, etc. Also Migrates some Application
settings, including Microsoft Office, and MSN Messenger. USMT does NOT
migrate applications - just the settings. USMT 3.0 can be used for
XP-to-Vista or Vista-to-Vista only.
VAMT - Volume Activation Management Tool - part of the MAK volume
managment system - can be used to force immediated activation of a MAK
activation client. VAMT allows you to automate MAK deployment and
activation over the network. It distributes MAKs from a centralized
console. VAMT keeps a current activation count and lists the activation
status of all MAK-activated systems in the environment. You can download
Virtual PC Express - Under Vista, older versions of Windows will run as
a subsystem, thanks to the use of Virtual PC Express, a feature of
Microsoft's new Enterprise and Ultimate versions. Virtual PC Express
allows users to run any previous version of the Windows operating
system, and customers who have annuity agreements with Microsoft will be
able to install an older version of Windows on top of Virtual PC Express
without having to acquire an additional license.
VCE - Vista Compatibility Evaluator - An agent compatibility evaluator
component of ACT. Identifies incompatibilities because of GINA (see
GINA); services which try to run in Session 0; and depreciated
VLK - Volume License Key. A pre-Vista licensing model in which an
organization purchased a number of licenses, which were then exempt from
VMK - Volume Master Key (in Bitlocker). The sectors of data on the drive
are encrypted using the FVEK (full-volume encryption key). However, the
FVEK is stored locally in encrypted form and the user never interacts
with or uses the FVEK directly. The key that users work with is the VMK
(volume master key). The VMK is used to encrypt and decrypt the FVEK
which, in turn, encrypts and decrypts the actual data sectors
Volume Activation 2.0 - The Vista version of pre-vista "activation." It
is similar, however, in pre-Vista, Volume License Agreement licensed did
not require activation. Vista requires that ALL be activated. Vista
provides 2 tools to assist in activating volume licenses, MAK, and KMS.
VPN NAP Enforcement Server - Vista Virtual private network enforcement
comprises a VPN NAP Enforcement Server (ES) component and a VPN NAP EC
WAIK - see AIK.
WAS - Windows Activation Services
Web Services for Devices - see LLTD, LLTD Responder, and PnP-X. Web
Services for devices works with LLTD for web-enabled device managment.
WDDM - Windows Display Driver Model driver. A requirement to support
Vista AERO video Displays. Improves video functionality, stability, and
reliability. WDDM requires DirectX9 or higer, Pixel Shader 2.0, and a 32
Bit Pixel Depth (bpp).
WDI - Windows Diagnostic Infrastructure. A suite of new diagnostic tools
provided in Windows Vista. It can not only identify existing problems,
but can also predict impending failures and recommend corrective or
mitigating actions. WDI can assis with Unreliable memory,
network-related problems, an startup problems. The WDI Includes the
Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool, the Windows Network Diagnostics tool,
WDS - Windows Deployment Services or Windows Deployment Server (AKA
Windows DS. An upgrade of RIS in Vista and above. Can be used to install
Vista images on new, unformatted disk drives, in full-automatic, remote
setup. As in RIS, the client computers must support remote boot (PXE),
most modern BIOSs do. WDS is included in the AIK (or WAIK) (not included
in BDD, but it has a role in BDD deployments. Prerequisits for
installing and running WDS are pretty stringent: 1) a WDS server must
either be a member server in a domain or a domain controller, 2) WDS
uses PXE, which uses DHCP. DHCP must be active in the domain, 3)DNS (all
domains have DNS), 4) installation media or a network share for the
image, 5) runs only on NTFS file systems, and 6) Minimum, Windows 2003
SP1 server with RIS INSTALLED (RIS does not have to be configured, but
it must be installed on the target server). WDS can be configured with a
WDS configuration wizard or using the WDSUtil Command-line tool.
WDSUtil - The command-line which manages WDS in both W03 and Vista/W08.
Look up the command for a dozen or more commands. WDSUtil is not
installed until RIS is installed and W03 SP2 or just install RIS, then
WDS on W08.
WER - Windows Error Reporting. Part of Reliability and Performance
Monitor. WER collects information about hardware failures and sends it
to Microsoft for analysis. WER also drives the automatic memory scanner
and other proactive self-diagnostics. (This is the pop-up that asks if
it can send error reporting info to Microsoft)
WET - Windows Easy Transfer. A Vista Utility (or a USB-to-USB cable) to
assist in migration of user state after a clean install. Easy transfer
is most useful for personal use or one-user-at-a-time.
WIM - Windows Imaging Format. The new Vista imaging format, used to
create and manage images. Provides capability to create and distribute
hardware independent images to desktops. WIM images are copied at the
file level and deployed at the file level, rather than at the sector
level - as most imaging systems do. WIM allows you to install an image
on any size of partition - even if the destination partition is smaller
than the original partition (as long as it is large enough to store the
data). Sector-based imaging systems cannot be installed on partitions
that are not equal or larger than the source image partition. Installing
an image from a WIM is non-destructive. You can install the image on a
volume that already has files on it, without erasing the volume. WIM
files are typically quite large and can make a major impact on network
traffic - Wireless networks and WIM files are very sloooow. Use a local
subnet "staging server."
WIM Boot Filter - Allows embedded WinPE boot image inside the WIM file,
which can boot from the WIM image CD/DVD.
WIM FS - Windows Imaging File System. Enables mounting and browsing the
WIM as a file system.
WIMGAPI - WIM Imaging Application Programming Interface. Vista
programmers use WIMGAPI to provide access to and manipulate Vista WIM
image files, including: 1) Add, update, and remove file data; 2) add,
update, and remove image data; 3) extract image data; 4) mount an image
using the WIM file system filter; 5) span images and; 6) Provide
messaging status and progress (without expanding the image to access the
files in the image)
WinRM - Windows Remote Management. Microsoft’s implementation of
WS-Management standard which allows remote computers to be easily
managed through a SOAP-based web service. WinRM allows obtaining data
(including WMI and other management information) from local and remote
computers running Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 (if WinRM is
installed on those computers), Windows Server 2008 and all WS-Management
protocol implementations on other operating systems. Using WinRM
scripting objects along with compatible command-line tools (WinRM or
WinRS), allows administrators to remotely run management scripts. A
WinRM session is authenticated to minimize security risks.
WinRS - Windows Remote Shell allows establishing secure Windows Remote
Management sessions to multiple remote computers from a single console.
(a junior SSH for Windows). WinRS just remotely executes what you
specify and returns the results.
Windows AIK - See AIK.
Windows Advanced Startup Options Menu - See Advanced Startup Options
Windows Connect Now - A Vista utility and technology that allows you to
configure a Wireless access point, and store the data on a USB drive to
be distributed to all of the computers that need wireless access to that
WAP. This is all accomplished via a simple wizard.
Windows Defender - a Microsoft proprietary version of anti-malware
protection software and signature service. Defender is built in to Vista
and daily signature updates are automatic and free. Windows Defender is
NOT a Virus protection service.
Windows DS - See WDS. Windows Deployment Services. Uses WinPE to start a
DS (RIS) deployment.
Windows Easy Transfer - Formerly known as Windows File and Settings
Transfer Wizard in pre-Vista. Unlike USMT, easy transfer does not
require an intermediate storage location. It can transfer via a network,
an Easy Transfer cable, a USB device, a share, an installation CD, or an
Easy Transfer CD Easy transfer assumes that the target computer already
has the new Vista OS installed with both the OS AND APPLICATIONS. The
Vista-side easy transfer wizard is used to create the Easy Transfer
files to be run on the old computer. These files can be stored on ANY
form of media that can be used to move the files to the old computer. On
the old computer, the Easy Transfer Wizard is started by running
migwiz.exe, included in the Easy Transfer files from the Vista machine.
Windows Easy Transfer cable - a pre-programmed USB cable with the
application in a ROM between the old and new computers. Eliminates the
need to know anything about the transfer. The Easy Transfer cable can be
used on either the old or the new computer; can be used in a
drag-and-drop from one window to the other; or can run automatically.
Since It can be used drag-and-drop, it can be used to migrate more than
just "user state;" "application settings:" and user's "my Documents." It
does NOT migrate passwords, such as email passwords, etc.
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security group policy - a new setting in
the group policy (Local Security Policy or windows 2008 domain policy)
added with Vista.
Windows Mail - was called Microsoft Outlook Express in pre-vista OSs.
Windows Meeting Space - A peer-to-peer collaboration app that allows up
to 10 people to work together. It is the primary collaboration
application included in Vista. It replaced the former NetMeeting
application in windows 2000 and "conf" in XP. It was previously Windows
Collaboration. Windows uses PNM to locate other people on the local
subnet - for internet meetings, an email invitation or a "file
invitation" is required. All communication between the participants is
encrypted. Voice communication is phone-based.
Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool - One component of the WDI, designed to
diagnose difficult memory problems. It can run automatically, in
conjunction with the Microsoft Online Crash Analysis - and generate a
report at the next reboot, or it can be run manually. If the Windows
Memory Diagnostics tool detects a problem in memory, it will avoid
(those) locations at the next startup - to enable recovery.
Windows Network Diagnostics Tool - - One component of the WDI, designed
to diagnose network problems. It can run automatically - and sometimes
repair the problems automatically, or diagnose the problem and recommend
Windows OPK - see OPK
Windows PE - (Also WINPE) Windows Preinstallation Environment for
starting computers. A bootable tool that provides OS features for
installation, troubleshooting, and recovery. It is not a general purpose
OS. It performs 3 specific tasks: Install Vista, Troubleshooting, and
Recovery. It can "inject" drivers before or after the PE has started. If
a driver is needed after starting, a special drive can be injected - and
the hardware used immediately. It can also partition and format disk
drives. Windows PE is the primary boot agent for the OEM
Pre-installation Kit (OPK) and the Windows Automated Installation Kit
(Windows AIK). WinPE also supports installation of pre-Vista OSs, across
a network share or otherwise. Supports X86, X64, and AMD64. Replaces the
functionality of DOS boot disks in pre-Vista. PE includes several
utilities; DiskPart, Drvload, Oscdimg, PEimg, and BCDEdit.
Windows RE - Windows Recovery Environment. Can be pre-installed on a
Vista system, invoked from a Vista Setup CD, or invoked from WinPE.
Includes numerous tools for recovery, similar to the XP/2003 /CmdCons,
but much more powerful - can be run on a dead machine. Options include
System restore, BCDEdit, Regedit, Diskpart, Startup repair, etc. Most
vendors include RE on the recovery CD and/or partition.
Windows Setup - The file to install Vista (replaces the Winnt and
winnt32 programs). Like Winnt, can be run interactively or unattened.
Windows Servicing - See WRP
Windows SIM - See Windows System Image Manager.
Windows System Image Manager - A tool for customizing and automating the
installation of Windows Vista (Similar to pre-Vista unattended setup).
Creates and edits XML-based Unattend.xml installation setup files; add,
modify, or delete optional components such as languages, service packs,
and device drivers. Windows System Image Manager can be scripted from
the command line. In addition, SIM (or WSIM) can create an answer file
to install 3rd party drivers and apps, language packs, Service packs,
and updates; and view all configurable settings in an image.
Windows System Imaging Process - A multi-part process and tools,
including: 1) Plan - Determine deployment method - use WAID, BDD; 2)
Environment Setup - Build deployment environment - use Windows SIM; 3)
Customize - Create answer file(s) - use Windows SIM, Unattend.xml, and
Oobe.xml; 4) Install and test - Install a new computer - use WinPE,
Windows Setup, and Sysprep; 5) Deploy - Capture, store, and deploy
image(s) - use ImageX, WDS, Distribution share; and 5) Maintain - Modify
existing image(s) - use Windows SIM.
WinHelp - Pre-vista .hlp help files are not supported on Vista. Winhelp
has been included in all Windows since 3.1. Beginning with Win98, all
versions ALSO included HTML Help.chm (compressed html) help files.
Microsoft has a downloadable .hlp reader, if needed.
Winload - The operating system loader for Vista. Control is passed to
Winload from Bootmgr to load the OS Kernel, HAL, and boot drivers. In
multi-boot, each Vista has its own Winload.
Winresume - Responsible for restoring Vista from Hibernation.
WinRM - Windows Remote Management. The Microsoft implementation of the
industry-standard WS-Management. Included in Vista, but not enabled, by
default. By including WinRM in Vista, allows remote monitoring and
management of Vista by multiple 3rd party management systems. Provides a
secure way to communicate with local and remote computers.
WMI - Windows Management Interface - Provides scripting and programming
hooks-and-handles for Windows application developers.
WMS - Windows Meeting Space (Vista' implementation of Netmeeting or
Conf) limits attendees to 10 for each meeting. WMS REQUIRES IPV6 to be
able to go beyond the local (IPv4) subnet. A global IPv6 address will be
a 128-bit hexadecimal number that begins with 2001:, 2002:, 2003:,
2400:, 2404:, 2600:, 2604:, 2608:, 260C:, 2610:, 2800:, 2A00:, or 2601.
If you're not connected to a network (Wireless), you can choose to
create a private ad hoc wireless network by which other meeting
participants can connect and join the meeting (e.g. conference room
WOW64 - Windows-on-windows. Allows 64-bit XP, Server 2003, Vista and
2008 to run 32 bit applications. Note: 64-bit applications no longer
have a WOW for 16-bit applications, and 16-bit applications and drivers
cannot be run.
WPD - Windows Portable Devices - a term used in Vista and Server 2008
group policies to control devices from AD. These devices include "smart"
devices, such as media players, mobile phones, Windows CE devices, etc
WPEinit - Windows PE Intialization. Initialized Windows PE at start
WPF - Windows Presentation Foundation Graphics Engine. The new graphics
rendering engine for the XPS (XML-based) print documents. Co-exists with
the existing windows GDI (Graphic Device Interface) previously used in
XP. Vista provides a dual print path to accommodate both printing modes.
The print device must also support XPSDrv-type drivers - or Vista will
revert back to GDI for printing on legacy printers.
WRP - Windows Resource Protection. WRP is designed to make SYSTEM
resources read-only. Updates to WRP protected resources ae restricted to
trusted installers, such as Windows Servicing. This replaces the
pre-Vista "Windows File Protection" feature. In Windows File Protection,
critical system resources were cached in a semi-secure location, and
automatically replaced if their registered file changed (Hash). WRP
works by setting ACLS on protected files that are not even accessible by
administrators (except by seizing ownership and changing the ACL). Full
permission to modify or replace WRP-protected resources was granted only
to processes using the Windows Module Installer service
WS-Discovery - Web Services Dynamic Discovery. a technical specification
that defines a multicast discovery protocol to locate services on a
WS-Management - a standard that describes how systems can access and
exchange management information, using a web service. Also see LTI. MDT,
WinRS, and WinRM. WS-Management provides a common way for systems to
access and exchange management information across the IT infrastructure.
The specification is quite rich, supporting much more than get/set of
simple variables, and in that it is closer to WBEM or Netconf than to
SNMP. A mapping of the DMTF-originated Common Information Model into
WS-Management was also defined.
WSIM - see Windows System Image Manager
WSUS - Windows Server Update Services. A utility, employed by
domain-based organizations to download Microsoft Updates ONLY to a
single server, where the WSUS administrator evaluates and/or tests the
updates, then approves them for installation. In a WSUS organization,
all other server computer and all client computers download ONLY THE
APPROVED (or tested) updates from the server on the LAN - reducing total
WAN bandwidth requirements. There are several exceptions that can be
applied to WSUS rules - which is usually a topic for certification
WUA - Windows Update Agent (The Windows Update that we are all familiar
with). When using WAIK, the WUA 3.0 (latest) agent must be included in
the install, manually.
WVCE - Windows Vista Compatibility Evaluator. An agent compatibility
evaluator component of ACT. Identifies depreciated programming parts of
an application that may cause incompatibilities in a Vista deployment.
XAML - Extensible Application Markup Language. The underlying standard
for all Microsoft XML-based documents. XAML elements map directly to
Common Language Runtime object instances, while XAML attributes map to
Common Language Runtime properties and events on those objects. XAML
files can be created and edited with visual design tools such as
Microsoft Expression Blend, Microsoft Visual Studio, and the hostable
Windows Workflow Foundation visual designer. They can also be created
and edited with a standard text editor, a code editor such as XAMLPad,
or a graphical editor such as Vectropy.
XML - Extensible Markup Language. All Microsoft Office products 2007 or
later defaults to an XML file format - also know as OPENDOC format. For
instance, a Word file which would ordinarily be saved as a .doc, will be
saved as a .docX. Xml file formats are used extensively in web-based
content. In general, and XML is a file containing the data content for
another (HTML-based or higher) web application. In this way, the content
is separate from the application that created it.
XPS - XML Paper Specification. provides users and developers with a
robust, open and trustworthy format for electronic paper. The XML Paper
Specification describes electronic paper in a way that can be read by
hardware, read by software, and read by people. XPS documents print
better, can be shared easier, are more secure and can be archived with
Zero Touch installation - see "BDD"
ZTI - Zero Touch Installation. Utilizes Microsoft System Center
Configuration Manager or SMS 2003 with Systems Management Server
Operating System Deployment (SMS OSD).